Friday, December 31, 2004

3-6

3-6!!
ni DiwangPalaboy
lugi pa sa puhunan
utang na loob pang 'maambunan'
prinsipyo'y ikinompromiso
para sa wala pang tatlo hanggang anim na libong piso.
#!@& **ii$!!!!
demoralized...
emasculated...
alienated...
the overworked elves and reindeers of
santa claus are the forerunners in fiction of ourselves.
nakakapagod ng umasa
karamiha'y di na lang iniinda
makabagong porma ng modern-day slavery
lansagin, baklasin, palayain ang sarili!

Greetings!

Pangimbabawan ang karupukan!
Gawing lunsaran ng pagbabago ang bagong taon!
Lansagin ang lumang kaayusan at palayain ang sarili sa atrasadong sistema!
Hangad ko ang isang mabunga at makabuluhang 2005 para sa ating lahat!

Thursday, December 16, 2004

Trivia Questions # 4

  1. What is the middle name of Emilio Aguinaldo?
  2. What is the surname of Chiquito?
  3. Which was established first? UP or PNU?
  4. Who is Maria Leonora Teresa in the tandem of Nora Aunor and Tirso Cruz III?
  5. Explain the reason why some imaginative people consider Santa Claus as a phallic symbol?
  6. What is a bulol?
  7. What is the symbolism of U.P. Oblation?
  8. If you are a data duplicator, you are also called as a___.
  9. What do you mean by TT in the text lingo/jargon of Koreans?
  10. Make sense out of this: hot hot handle handle

Tuesday, December 14, 2004

Compiled Economic Thoughts

Economic Thoughts
compiled by John N. Ponsaran
QUOTES
“For every author, their notions and their theories are examined as attempts to find answers to the main economic problems of the time.” (A Concise History of Economic Thought, Vaggi and Groenewegen)

“The wisdom of nature has fortunately made ample provisions for remedying many bad effects of the folly and injustices of man.” (Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith)

“The thrifty, industrious capitalist who spots an opportunity in the market for the employment of productive hands is the hero of Smith’s work. In his effort to increase his own wealth, he cannot do other than benefit society in general.” (Economics for Beginners, Caravan)

“Ang lider ay mapagbigay ng kapangyarihan habang namamahagi ng
responsibilidad.” (Ekonomiya,Tao, Mundo at ang Ekonomistang Guro, Tullao)

“With the 1989 thaw in Cold War tensions, capitalism was one of the first aspects of Western Democracy to penetrate the Iron Curtain as McDonald’s brought “burgers and fries” to Moscow.” (Cliff Notes on Heilbroner, Snodgrass)

JOKES
AN AMERICAN CORPORATION
You have two cows.
You sell one, and force the other to produce the milk of four cows.
You are surprised when the cow drops dead.

A JAPANESE CORPORATION
You have two cows.
You redesign them so they are one-tenth the size of an ordinary cow and produce twenty times the milk.
You then create clever cow cartoon images called Cowkimon and market them World-Wide.
A CHINESE CORPORATION
You have two cows.
You have 300 people milking them.
You claim full employment, high bovine productivity, and arrest the newsman who reported the numbers.

Monday, December 13, 2004

XXX

XXX
ni DiwangPalaboy
Ironically, being exceptionally good
turn outs to be a liability nowadays.
Self is a product of experience. It is a learned concept.
Comparison is not a bad psychology.
Classroom is but an artificial learning environment.
Christ is himself a revolutionary.
Most of what we have around us are McDonaldized.
Injustice fuels revolution.
If everything and everyone is good, then nothing and no one is good.

Sunday, December 12, 2004

Recommended Books on Politics, Economics and Culture

  1. Wordly Philosophers by Robert Heilbroner
  2. Bakit Baligtad Magbasa ng Libro ang mga Pilipino by Bob Ong
  3. Synthetic Culture and Development by Renato Constantino
  4. The Globalization of Poverty by Michel Chussodovsky
  5. Bases of our Insecurity by Roland Simbulan
  6. Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism by Vladimir Lenin
  7. Anthropology by Ember&Ember
  8. Power Elite by C. Wright Mills
  9. McDonaldization of the Society by George Ritzer
  10. Political Ideologies: Their Origin and Impact by Leon Baradat
  11. Barangay by William Henry Scott
  12. Dissent and Counter-consciousness by Renato Constantino
  13. Sarap by Edilberto Alegre and Doreen Fernandez
  14. Philippine Economy and Politics by Joma Sison and Juliet de Lima
  15. Inside the Third World by Paul Harrison
  16. Uncovering the Beat by Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism (PCIJ)
  17. The Rulemaker by PCIJ
  18. ABNKKBSNplaako by Bob Ong
  19. Larangan by Prospero Covar
  20. Rizal Without the Overcoat by Ambeth Ocampo

Babaylanismo

Ang mga Babaylan ng Sinaunang Panahon
ni John N. Ponsaran

Ang mga babaylan ay pinaniniwalaan ng mga sinaunang Pilipino bilang mga nakatatanda at kagalang-galang na miyembro ng komunidad na nagtataglay ng kakaibang kapangyarihan na makipag-ugnayan sa mga entidad na supernatural. Kung ang datu ang siyang nangangalaga sa kapakanang pang-ekonomiya at pampulitika, ang mga babaylan naman ang may kinalaman sa aspetong panrelihiyon at pangkalusugan. Kilala ang mga babaylan sa iba’t-ibang katawagan tulad ng Katalonan (Tagalog), Baliyan (Ayta), Mabalian (Bagobo), Mumbaki (Ifugao), Baylan (Tagbanua) at iba pa.

Ang mga babaylan
Ang pagiging babaylan ay isang “pagtatakda.” Ito ay isang pribilehiyo sapagkat pili lamang ang mga napagkakalooban ng ganitong angking galing. Sa pamamagitan ng ganitong premonisyon ay nakakaramdam sila ng pahiwatig para sa ganitong panawagan na may layuning makatulong sa kapwa.

Sila ay walang pinag-iba sa mga karaniwang mamamayan ng komunidad. Sa usapin ng pang-araw-araw na gawain, ginagampanan din nila ang kanilang mga trabaho tulad ng pagsasaka, pangangaso, pangingisda at iba pa. Subalit dahil sa mahalagang papel na kanilang ginagampanan sa kanilang komunidad bilang physician-priestess ay kinakailangan nilang tumalima sa mga tawag ng pangangailangan sa ayaw man nila o sa gusto.

Kasarian ng mga babaylan
Hindi eksklusibo ang pagiging babaylan sa mga babae tulad ng karaniwang paniniwala ng ilan. Ayon sa artikulo ni Prop. Sabino G. Padilla na pinamagatang Babaylan: Sa Pagitan ng Daigdig ng mga Diwata, Anito at Tao na inilathala sa Gamot, Tabak at Sandata, ipinaliwanag niya na walang itinatangi kung lalaki o babae ang pagiging babaylan. Subalit nilinaw niya na mayroong mga partikular na kultura na eksklusibo lamang ito sa mga babae o lalaki. Halimbawa, ang Mumbaking Ifugao ay isang lalaki subalit ang Baylan naman ng Mandaya ay isang babae.

Kolektibismo sa likod ng ritwal
Kapansin-pansin na ang pagsasagawa ng mga ritwal ay dinadaluhan hindi lamang ng babaylan at ng nagpapagamot kundi maging ng mga kamag-anakan at ilang mga nakikipanood. Mahalagang papel ang ginagampanan ng babaylan hindi lamang sa pagpapagaling ng maysakit bagkus ay sa ritwal ng pagpapasalamat para sa masaganang ani; pagtatagumpay sa isang digmaan; pagkasugpo sa peste at iba pa. Sa mga tagpong ito napapatunayan ang pagpapahalaga ng mga sinaunang Pilipino sa kolektibismo.

Tunggalian sa Katolisismo
Ang mga namumuno sa pagsasagawa ng katutubong relihiyon ay dumanas ng matinding pag-atake at pagkundina mula sa mga hanay ng mga tagapagpalaganap ng Kristiyanismo. Karamihan din sa mga nasususlat (written accounts) patungkol sa mga babaylan ay akda ng tagatalang mga Kastila at misyonero kung kaya hindi maiiwasan na mayroon itong tendensiya sa paniniwalang higit na mataas ang antas ng kanilang kultura (ethnocentrism).
Upang makaenganyo ng mas maraming convert ay nagsagawa ng maigting na kampanya ang mga Katoliko laban sa katutubong relihiyon. Sinunog nila ang mga sinasambang idolo ng mga katutubo at binansagan ang mga ritwal ng pag-aalay bilang mga gawi ng demonyo. Maging ang mga babaylan na siyang namumuno sa mga gawaing ito ay kanilang hinusgahang mga kampon ng kasamaan. Itinaboy nila ang mga babaylan palayo sa parish-pueblo complex kung saan nakakonsentra ang mga colonial subject patungong kabundukan (hinterland) upang tuluyang supilin ang kalabang pananampalataya. Sa bandang huli ay nagtagumpay silang supilin ang katutubong sistema ng pananampalataya subalit nagpatuloy pa rin ang mga pagriritwal ng mga babaylan. Marami pa rin ang nanatiling palihim na sumasamba sa mga anito at diwata.

Ang banal na ritwal
Sa pagriritwal karaniwang iniaalay sa mga anito at ispirito ang mga espesyal na pagkain, ginto at mga alahas. Bago isagawa ang mismong ritwal ay gumagamit ang mga babaylan ng mga halamang gamot (hallucinugen) na nakapagdudulot ng pansamantalang pagbabago ng kamalayan na sinasabayan ng pag-inom ng katutubong alak at malalim na konsentrasyon. Bunga nito ay sumasailalim siya sa séance kung saan nagagawa niyang makipag-ugnayan sa mga espiritu. Bilang isang spirit-medium ay naipaaabot ng kinakausap na espiritu ang kanyang mga tagubilin at iba pang nais na iparating sa mga mortal. Pinaniniwalang na ang mga babaylan ay may kapangyarihan na malaman hindi lamang ang sanhi ng pagkakasakit kundi maging ang kahahantungan nito kung mamamatay man o gagaling pa. Kabahagi ng pagriritwal ang mga awitin at matatalinghagang mga salita na nagpasalin-salin na mula noong sinaunang yugto ng panahon hanggang sa kanilang panahon. Sa kanyang aklat na pinamagatang Relacion de las Islas Filipinas isinaad ni Loarca ang mapalamuti at magarbong kasuotan at head dress ng mga babaylan sa tuwing isinasagawa ang banal na ritwal. Bahagi rin ng kabuuang okasyon ang paghahanda ng altar kung saan ihahapag ang mga piling alay sa mga espiritu.

Patunay na patuloy pa rin ang babaylanismo
Mahalaga ang papel na ginagampanan ng mga babaylan ng sinaunanang panahon bilang tagapangalaga ng kalusugan at pang-ispiritwal na kagalingan (welfare) ng mga katutubo. Naging laganap man ang kampanya ng mga paring misyonero laban sa kanila ay nagawa pa rin nilang maipagpatuloy ang katutubong ritwal sa mga tagong pook. Maging sa kasalukuyan ay nagpatuloy ang tradisyon ng panggagamot ng mga babaylan sa katauhan ng mga albularyo at hilot. Bagamat may ilang mga pagkakaiba ay patunay pa rin ito na hindi tuluyang nabura ang katutubong kalinangan. Patuloy pa rin itong naipasa mula sa sinaunang panahon hanggang sa kasalukuyan.
(Ang artikulong ito ay unang nailathala sa History Page ng Kabayan)

Common Terms and Expressions in Filipino Indigenous Healing

Common Terminologies and Expressions in the
Filipino Indigenous Healing Tradition
by John N. Ponsaran

The following items are terminologies related to the Filipino indigenous healing tradition. The terms may vary according to the following variables: geography, ethno-linguistic group, classification, etc. This preliminary list is an attempt to cover the terminologies used in the principle and practice of the indigenous healing tradition in the Philippines.

1. sinat
2. lagnat
3. usog
4. bati
5. balis
6. namatanda
7. barang
8. taning
9. sanib, sinaniban
10. sapi, sinapian
11. herbolario, arbularyo
12. sinok
13. binat, baynat
14. mag-asawang gamot
15. sakit
16. gamot, manggagamot (healer)
17. nagsasakit-sakitan (malingering)
18. “doctor quack-quack”
19. lason, nalason
20. matamlay
21. walang gana
22. “mabigat ang katawan”
23. malala
24. signus
25. deliryo
26. tawas, magtatawas
27. bulong, binulungan
28. usal/dasal/orasyon
29. halamang gamot
30. espiritista
31. hawa, mahawahan
32. galing, gumaling
33. taib, nataiban
34. sukay-tae
35. purga
36. naninilaw
37. namumutla
38. nangingitim (mukha, kuko, atbp.)
39. balisawsaw
40. rayuma
41. kamandag
42. nag-aagaw-buhay
43. nanlalata
44. nanlalambot
45. pagaw/paos/malat
46. mahapdi
47. makirot
48. makati
49. paso
50. galis, ginagalis
51. gasgas
52. baog
53. tuyo, nanunuyo
54. pasa, namamasa
55. kabag
56. maga.pamamaga
57. langib, naglalangib
58. peklat, galis, butlig, pantal
59. bangungot
60. bulo (halimbawa: Nabulo ng paru-paro)
61. lamig, nalamigan, nilalamig, pinagpapawisan ng malamig
62. singaw
63. naknak, nagnanaknak
64. nana, nagnanana, naghahakot ng nana
65. langgas, nilalanggas
66. babaylan
67. mananambal
68. anito, mag-aanito
69. kulam, mangkukulam
70. insenso
71. pinauusukan, pagpapausok
72. “pantaboy” (halimbawa: asin, abo, buntok pagi, atbp.)
73. kontra, panggontra (antidote)
74. talab, tinalaban, di-tinalaban
75. manas, pamamanas
76. magaspang
77. pamumuo ng dugo
78. paninigas (halimbawa: paninigas ng tiyan, paninigas ng kalamnan)
79. duwal, duwak
80. nahanginan, “sinampal ng hangin”
81. nanuno, namaligno, “napaglaruan”
82. lawayan (halimbawa: Lawayan mo ang bata baka mausog)
83. sumpa
84. hika
85. hiyang (halimbawa: Hiyang sa hilot)
86. hilot
87. bentusa
88. nagaway
89. nangangasim
90. naghihingalo
91. nangingilo
92. nangangalumata
93. dahak
94. sinisikmura
95. nahimasmasan
96. “pinagpapakitaan”, “pinagpaparamdaman”
97. subo (halimbawa: May subo si Ka Tasyo kaya matagal ang buhay)
98. agimat, talisman, birtud (amulet)
99. bisa (efficacy)
100. timitirik ang mata, “bumabaligtad ang sikmura”
101. pulikat
102. pilay (sprain)





Music and Society

Music and Society
by John N. Ponsaran


Music is defined as a creative human activity in which sounds are combined and systematized to communicate meaning. As a process of combining sounds, it is important to understand the manner in which the sounds are put together and the socio-cultural context where it takes place. The latter is the particular concern of ethnomusicologist. Ethnomusicologists specifically analyze the individual musical traditions in view of the social norms and cultural context of a given society.

Given the multi-dimensionality of music, it should be viewed not only as a pure technicality but as a social event as well. This shall be discussed in details as you proceed with the succeeding paragraphs. Whether vocal or instrumental, music is more than just a form of leisure. It is a medium to communicate an idea or an emotion and disseminate the value system of a particular culture. The following are also some of the benefits of music in the individual and societal level.
• Conditions the mood
• Brings out human creativity
• Promotes physical, emotional and spiritual healing (therapeutic)
• Breaks the monotony of life
• Serves as a medium of communication
• Strengthens the bond of a group
• Serves as a medium to facilitate the transfer of culture (value and belief system)
• Boosts national pride
• Serves as a tourist attraction and an income-generating scheme
• Acts as a catalyst of social change


The origin of music can be attributed to any or combination of the following assumptions. [1] Music started from the use of primitive communication. (e.g. tribal drums, calls, etc.), [2] Music is associated with work rhythms and patterns, [3] Music is an outgrowth of the innate nature of humans to express their emotion (Miller: 1971).

Music scholars assume that music did not exist as a separate art until the Medieval Period or later. During the ancient times, music was more valued based on its various functions than its artistic appeal. It was viewed as an integral part in the performances of the following rituals.
• Birth rite
• Baptismal rite
• Rite of passage
• Ritual to appease the spirits
• Hunting and gathering ritual
• Farming and fishing ritual
• Religious worship
• War ritual
• Courtship
• Wedding ceremony
• Thanksgiving ceremony
• Festival
• Healing ritual
• Death and burial rite

According to Professor Corazon Canave-Dioquino of the College of Music at the University of the Philippines, musical instruments have been used for a variety of purpose. She pointed out that in earlier times they were also used as an accompaniment to dance or to labor. In fact, the playing of gong among the Cordillerans is an essential element in the setting of peace pacts (bodong) and numerous ritual elaborations. The National Museum has several collections of indigenous musical instruments of the different ethnolinguistic groups in the Philippines. Each of which is a reflection of their physical and social environment.

Artists communicate to their audience through their music. However, the communication process is affected by various factors such as time, religion, gender, age, educational background, geography, social status, among others. This explains why a particular music is appreciated by a particular subculture but not by another.

These often determine the kind of exposure the listener has had to different kinds of music and his or her ideas about what is or what is not musical. People judge sounds as pleasant or unpleasant, soothing or irritating, meaningful or chaotic based on this cultural conditioning (Flores:1997)

In the religious sphere, the Roman Catholic tradition has a profound influence in the development of musical tradition in the Philippines. The religious faith paved the way to the proliferation and spread of sacred songs, chants and instrumental music of the church. It also led to the formation of music schools, the construction of baroque pipe organs such as the renowned Bamboo Organ of Las Pinas City and a host of other landmarks.
The cultural tradition of Folk Catholicism (fusion of Catholic and indigenous religious traditions) also typifies the strong influence of the Western symbolism in the manner of worship of Filipinos through feasts, songs, prayers and other religious rites. This is particularly true in the performances of folk rituals in the provinces of Batangas (subli), Cavite (sanghiyang) and Laguna (turumba) in which syncretism is quite evident.


Popular Music in the Philippines

Professor Jonas Baes of the University of the Philippines points out that the Euro-Hispanic influence cultivated a culture of aristocracy and cosmopolitanism among the privileged ilustrado class. He noted that it was from this social class that the concert artists, pianists, vocalists, violinists as well as composers—the classicists—would emerge. The common expression “Classical music” denotes Euro-centric musical tradition which includes Gregorian chants, Ludwig van Beethoven’s symphonies, broadway musicales, among others. Likewise, it is also used to distinguish it from the popular music (pop music) as we know it today. It was only during the arrival of the American colonialists that the Filipinos were introduced to the pop culture.

The Philippine music is a cultural mix of indigenous, Eastern and Western influences. This diversity, however, is also evident in other areas of arts such as painting, fashion, sculpture, dance, theater, drama and even in the culinary tradition. The evolution of the Philippine music is a product of the country’s indigenous (pre-Hispanic) heritage, Asian roots, cultural exchanges with other societies and colonial and neo-colonial experience both in secular and religious terms.

The pervasive influence of the 333 years of Spanish annexation and 45 years of American control has rendered the mainstream Philippine culture almost a “ mirror-image” of its former colonial masters. Although it is apparent that the Philippine’s case is more Americanized than Hispanized in detail.

The rise of the Philippine popular musical tradition is attributable to the strong influence of the Anglo-American colonial institutions to the Filipino culture. As noted, the American had the most enduring influence in our collective psyche which led to the neocolonial character of the mainstream music in the contemporary period.

I. American Period
Vaudeville shows (bodabil) as a form of leisure during the early 20th century included jazz songs and tap dances to the tune of popular musical genre. The prominence of the American value system permeated the themes and styles of the Philippine entertainment scene.

II. Japanese Period
Strong anti-American sentiment was promoted to “popularize” Asian traditions and imbue Japanese value system. It was realized through the imposition of Filipino and Nihonggo language and other art forms such as literature, music and drama.

III. Post-War Period
This period is characterized by the re-surfacing of the American-modeled cultural tradition and the introduction of swing, samba and cumbachero.

Rock and roll and country music dominated the music scene in the 50’s up to the 60’s. The intense popularity of Western artists such as Elvis Presley and the Beatles in the Philippines has reached to cultic proportion.

The ‘70s gave rise to the pool of Filipino artists and musicians who aims to popularize a musical genre distinctly Filipino in character (e.g. Pinoy rock and Pinoy jazz) Tatak Pinoy, so to speak. Songs with Taglish lyrics (Tagalog and English) also gained popularity.

IV. Modern Period
The introduction of modern technologies like cable television, computer, Internet and audio CDs has further facilitated the integration of the popular music to the Filipino psyche and social being. The avalanche of Music Television Videos (MTVs) in the local music scene further devalued the indigenous tradition vis-à-vis its Western counterpart.
Songs of Protest
As noted above, music can also be an agent of social change. Liberal and progressive artists believe that their music is a reflection of the social realities (social realism). Through their music, they aim to expose the causes of social ills and raise the collective consciousness of the people. Foremost among them are Freddie Aguilar, Gary Granada, Buklod, Noel Cabangon, The Jerks, Joey Ayala, among others.

Protest music exudes nationalistic and progressive overtones. As social realist, these artists claim that music can serve as a political weapon to empower their ranks. They proved this by confronting and condemning the fascist dictatorship of Marcos during his presidency.

Wikipedia noted that revolutionary/protest songs become popular during times of social disruptions and among socially marginalized sectors. The theme of most songs of protests rejects all forms of social injustice, racial discrimination, bigotry and the like. To illustrate, here are some of the foreign examples of protest songs.

Protest songs concerning racism
• "Blackheart Man" by Bunny Wailer
• "Can Blue Men sing the Whites?" by Bonzo Dog Band
• "Free Nelson Mandela" by The Specials
Protest songs concerning war
• "Army Man in Vietnam" by Big Joe Williams
• "Eve of Destruction" by Barry McGuire
• "War" by Bob Marley & the Wailers
Protest songs concerning nuclear weapons
• "Nagasaki Nightmare" by Crass
• "Put Down That Weapon" by Midnight Oil
• "Redemption Song" by Bob Marley & the Wailers
Protest songs concerning poverty
• "Electric Avenue" by Eddie Grant
• "Freddie's Dead" by Curtis Mayfield
• "Them Belly Full (But We Hungry)" by Bob Marley & the Wailers
Protest songs concerning governments and imperialism
• "God Save the Queen" by The Sex Pistols
• "Give Ireland Back to the Irish" by Paul McCartney
• "Revolution" by Bob Marley & the Wailers
Protest songs concerning feminism
• "I am Woman" by Helen Reddy
• "Only Women Bleed" by Alice Cooper
• "Woman is the Nigger of the World" by John Lennon
Protest songs concerning environmentalism
• "Damn this Traffic Jam" by James Taylor
• "Mercy Mercy Me (The Ecology)" by Marvin Gaye
Protest songs concerning slavery
• "Mister Charlie" by Robert Hunter/Grateful Dead
• "Redemption Song" by Bob Marley
Most of the protest songs or chants, if not all, are Marxist in orientation. They condemn the ruling elite (power-wielder) for using the art as an ideological state apparatus in order to perpetuate themselves in power. They believe that art and media should instead serve as means to liberate the masses from all forms of oppression and manipulation of the bourgeois class. The following are examples of protest music chanted by participants of mass demonstrations.

Ang tao ang bayan ngayon ay lumalaban.
Ngayon ay lumalaban—ang tao, ang bayan!

Bayan bayan bayan ko, di pa tapos ang laban mo.
Ang laban ni Bonifacio, isulong mo, isulong mo.

Imperialismo, ibagsag!
Burukrata kapitalismo, ibagsak!
Piyudalismo, ibagsak!
Si Erap mismo, babagsak!

U.S. Imperialist—Number 1 Terrorist!
Number 1 Terrorist—U.S. Imperialist!

Uring magsasaka, pangunahing puwersa!
Uring manggagawa, hukbong mapagpalaya!

Never again, never again, never again to Martial Law!



Exercises and Enrichment Activities:

1. “In Western cultures, the distinction is made between string, wind, and percussion instruments in an orchestra. This classification focuses on the manner in which the sound material is made to vibrate—by plucking or rubbing a stretched chord, blowing a column of air, or striking some other percussive movement. The emphasis is on acting and doing. The criteria for grouping an instrument into a specific category is the operation performed by the player on the instrument.

In traditional Chinese music, on the other hand, the material of the instrument itself— stone, metal, wood, and so on- forms the basis for classifying it under the major categories for tonal color. The materials represent the components of the physical universe and their presence in a musical grouping has philosophical and religious significance. Thus, in ya-yueh (ritual music of Confucianism), earth, membrane, bamboo, gourd, and string— must be present, both to create a satisfying musical sound and to reflect a complete cosmic system.”—an excerpt from the book, Art and Society (1997) edited by Patrick Flores


Based on the passage above, discuss how the physical (geography) and social (culture) environment influence the classification and production of music in the Western and Chinese societies.


2. In an essay, elaborate the idea that music is not an isolated phenomenon and it does not occur in a vacuum.

3. Analyze the lyrics of the song Lalawigan composed and interpreted by Gary Granada. Answer the following guide questions:
a. What is the main theme of the song?
b. Cite the main points in the song which highlight the rural-urban dichotomy?
c. Is the message of the song a clear reflection of the social realities? Is it valid in the experience of the Philippines?


Lalawigan
by Gary Granada

Verse 1

Narito sa lalawigan ang una mong pag-ibig
Ang iyong mga kaibigan, ang iyong mga kapatid
Si Juan minsa'y nangarap, at kung saan saan pa nagpunta.
Ang asensong hinahanap, sa lalawigan lang pala.

Chorus 1

Dito lang matutupad ang hinahangad
Dito lamang uunlad at lalawig ang bukas
Dito lang nagmumula ang yaman ng ating bansa
Dito tayo gagawa, sa kinagisnang lalawigan


Verse2


Ang damdaming makatao dito rin natutunan
Mga ugaling Pilipino, gaya ng pagdadamayan
Sa siyudad ibang sistema, sa sobrang kasikipian
Pati na sa iyong problem, halos walang mahingahan

Chorus 2

Dito mo ako mahalin, dito natin didiligin
Palagihi't palaguin ang ating sumpaan
Dito tayo mamumunga, gigiik at giginhawa
Sasaya at sasagana sa kinagisnang lalawigan
Dito tayo titira, sisikhay at sisigla
Tatagal at tatanda sa kinagisnang lalawigan.

4. Dr. Ramon P. Santos identified that there are two distinct repertoires in Philippine oral traditions: 1) musical forms that evolved from Southeast Asian cultures, usually referred to as indigenous traditions, and 2) musical forms that developed in rural Christian communities, more commonly known as folk music. From the above classification, identify the category where following musical forms belong. (1-indigenous tradition, 2-folk music)
____a. Owiwi (Kalinga lullabies)
____b. Salidumay (Mandaya entertainment songs)
____c. Sowe-ey (rice-pounding song of the Bontoc)
____d. Didi-yaw (Bontoc chant for death rituals)
____e. Pasyon (chanting of the life and passion of Christ)

5. Divide the class to sub-groups with 4-5 members each. Submit a research output about any of the following topic. Conduct an archival/library research and an interview with resource persons. Before the research proper, submit an outline of your group’s research proposal to your professor for approval.
a. Filipino Musical Artists in the International Scene
b. Asian Element in the Philippine Music
c. Americanization of the Philippine Popular Music
d. The History of Commercialized Music
e. The Musical Genre of the Islamic Culture
f. The State of the Philippine Music Industry
g. Censorship in Music during the Martial Law Regime
h. The Therapeutic Effect of Music
i. A Study about Songs with Double-Meanings (e.g. Salbakuta songs)
j. Music as an Integral Part of Religious Worship
k. Music as a Form of Protest
l. The Impact of Piracy to the Global Music Industry
m. The Development of Music Education in the Philippines
n. The Relevance of Ethnomusicology as a Field of Study
o. The Musical Tradition of the (any indigenous tribe in Philippines)


6. “In the pre-colonial context or Asian philosophy of art, then, music was a community enterprise both in forms and content—a social vehicle for getting people together, interacting with each other to keep the village whole and secure. The other characteristic of this kind of music may be implied: participation was by everyone, where no one was barred from joining no matter how ordinary the artistic ability of the person was. Although, there was expertise, there were no superstars. Authorship was not important. A work of art and music was a product of the community’s labor and creative talents. There was no gap between performer and audience, no desire to preserve their arts in permanent forms, not only because their materials were perishable, but also because there was simply no need for it. The joy of creating came from the process or from performing, not in the finished product; and because there was artistic abundance hoarding or preservation of the works did not arise.”—An excerpt from The State of Philippine Music by Fe Mangahas (1983).


In an essay form, analyze whether or not the state of the Philippine contemporary music is still communal in philosophy and practice based on the definition of the passage above.


References:

Ferris, Jean. Music: The Art of Listening. U.S.A.: Wm. C. Brown Publishing, 1988.

Flores, Patrick , ed. Art and Society. Quezon City: U.P. Press, 1997.

Kamien, Roger. Music: An Appreciation. U.S.A.: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1980.

Mangahas, Fe. The State of the Philippine Music in Politics of Culture edited by Nicanor Tiongson. Manila: PETA, 1984.

Miller, Hugh Milton. History of Music 3rd ed. Philippines: Barnes and Noble, Inc.,1971.

World, Milo. An Introduction to Music and Arts in the Western World. Iowa: Win C. Brown Publisher, 1972.

Grolier Academic Encyclopedia Volume XIII. U.S.A.: Grolier International, Inc., 1989.
Popular Music in the Philippines by Professor Jonas Baes downloaded from
Philippine Music Instruments by Professor Corazon C. Dioquino downloaded from http://www.ncca.gov.ph/culture&arts/cularts/arts/music/music-musicinst2.htm

Westernized Musical Tradition in the Philippines by Professor Jonas Baes downloaded from
http://www.ncca.gov.ph/culture&arts/cularts/arts/music/music-westmusical.htm
Traditional Forms of Music by Dr. Ramon P. Santos downloaded from http://www.ncca.gov.ph/culture&arts/cularts/arts/music/music-tradforms.htm
Wikipedia—free encyclopedia downloaded from
http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protest_song

Valuable inputs from Professor Juliet Bien of the Philippine Arts Program, University of the Philippines-Manila.

Rizalista in the Philippines

Notes on Rizalista Groups in the Philippines
by John N. Ponsaran

Considering the complex belief systems of the different Rizalista organizations in the Philippines, it is more fitting to classify them in subgroups than as an aggregate. The Rizalista groups profess their faith in different ways. Generally, Rizalista groups immortalize and worship Jose P. Rizal as a divine being. But they also have contrasting views about the persona of Rizal. For instance, some groups consider him as god, the son of Bathala, the reincarnation of Christ, a spirit, an avatar, a saint, a prophet, while others believe that he is a god and a man at the same time. Some of the registered Rizalista groups are Samahan ng Tatlong Persona Solo Dios, Ciudad Mistica de Dios, Adamista, Bathalismo, Watawat ng Lahi, Iglesia Sagrada Flilipina, and Espiritual Pilipino Catholic Church, among others. They are scattered all over the archipelago but most of them are based in Calamba, Laguna and at the foot of Mt. Banahaw in Quezon Province. There are even chapters abroad.

For the unacquainted, this religious belief may appear to be strange. Scholars, on the other hand, noted that the belief about a god personified in human flesh is common even among the early civilization up to this period.

Another way of analyzing the rise of the Rizalista groups is what the late Prof. Renato Constantino considered as another sponsorship of U.S. to regard Rizal as an object of adoration to boost their pacification campaign in the archipelago.

In the eyes of the American colonialists, Rizal’s strong adherence to reform and assimilation made him the best option to embody the ideals and aspirations of the Filipino people. The sponsorship of Rizal as the national hero befits the purpose of the second wave of colonizers to dampen the separatist tendencies of the Filipino freedom fighters. In the same way , it was also intended to deflect the fury to the Spanish colonial regime (Rizal being the reminder of the repression they have undergone) in place of the American colonialism.

Constantino quoted James Le Roy who worked with the Philippine Second Commission about the scheme to promote the hero-worship. To quote:

“The Taft Commission did foster the worship of Rizal. They were glad in 1900 to have one way of giving expression to their sympathies with national ideals, without appearing to favor revolt…”

Rizalist groups are generally considered as a form of Folk Catholicism. Folk Catholicism is a syncretist tradition which fuses the practices of Catholicism and the indigenous religious system.

Some Rizalista groups venerate Rizal for his apparent parallelism with Jesus Christ. Some of their striking commonalities, according to A.B. Valeriano, are as follows:
• Both were morally upright and exemplary in their own rights.
• Both were pious.
• Both were Asians.
• Both of them originated from countries which were under foreign rule during their time.
• Both were advocates of solidarity, equality and peaceful coexistence in spite of differences in social status, ethnicity and creed
• Both possess extraordinary character and have the purest intention in pursuing their missions.
• Both of them were healers.
• Both were great visionaries.
• Both were advocates of reform and peaceful means to carry out their missions.
• Both strongly denounced prejudice, apathy, immorality and cruelty.
• Both were messianic in their own rights
• Both were victims of trial by mockery
• Both were executed by their enemies.
• Both died for a noble cause.
• Both their teachings have enduring influence to many people around the world


The following are excerpts of the prayers of the members of Bathalismo (Inang Mahiwaga, Inc.)

Receive, Oh God, the sacrifice which we are offering to Your Majesty, in honor of Our Father Rizal, the Christ of the Tagalog region.

…Rizal is the Christ of the Tagalog region. He is the Lord of the whole world. He is the King of Kings, the Lord of Lords. Because in Him is given by the Holy Bible the Spirit of God Almighty.


Rizalist groups view nationalism as an integral part of their religiosity. They heavily draw their inspiration from Rizal’s pool of writings, i.e., novels, essays, poems, diary and correspondence. In commemoration of Rizal’s heroism, many of them flock his monument at the Rizal Park every June 19 and December 30 annually.

References
• Constantino, Renato. Rizal’s Real Detractors. Manila Chronicle, 31 December 1970.
• Ocampo, Ambeth R. Rizal Without the Overcoat. Pasig: Anvil Publishing, Inc, 1990.
• Rosero, Edgar V. ed. Popularizing Rizal in Briefs. Quezon City: Oregem International
Publishing, Inc., 1992.
• Valeriano, A.B. Rizal and Christ: An Analogy, Sunday Time Magazine
• Interview with Isabela Suarez (Ciudad Mistica de Dios) and Leonor Gutierrez (Espiritual Pilipino Catholic Church) of Mt. Banahaw (fieldwork)

Friday, December 10, 2004

Trivia Questions no. 2

Trivia Questions
  1. "King Philip Cried Out For Goodness Sake" is a mnemonic for what?
  2. What is the Tagalog translation of College? (Clue: It starts with letter D)
  3. Quoted from Ambeth Ocampo, "What makes doughnut a doughnut? Is it the dough or the whole in it?"
  4. What is sanib-lakas if translated in English?
  5. A famous riddle: Lumipad si Superman. Nahulog si Batman. Nabuntis si Wonder Woman
  6. Make sense out of this: ABNKKBSNplaako! (A famous book of Bob Ong)
  7. What is the English translation of nuestro?
  8. Make sense out of this: steppetspets
  9. Make sense out of this: bolunemcoeon
  10. Make sense out of this: M E N T

Thursday, December 09, 2004

Recommended Local and Foreign Films

Recommended Foreign and Local Films
(to be updated)

  1. Kundun
  2. Gandhi
  3. American History X
  4. Mulanay: Sa Pusod ng Dagat
  5. American Beauty
  6. Patch Adams
  7. With Honors
  8. Magnifico
  9. Mulan
  10. Mila
  11. Bagong Buwan
  12. Bayaning Third World
  13. South Park (The Movie)
  14. Munting Tinig
  15. Minsan May Dalawang Bata
  16. Oro Plata Mata
  17. 7 Years in Tibet
  18. Batas Militar
  19. Lason sa Base
  20. Asia and the Pacific
  21. Door to Door
  22. Orapronobis
  23. Engkanto
  24. Mumbaki
  25. Hero
  26. Balweg: The Rebel Priest
  27. Saksi sa Kasaysayan
  28. Rat Race
  29. Monsters, Inc.
  30. No Time for Play
  31. Tatarin
  32. Dekada '70
  33. Jose Rizal
  34. Gladiator
  35. Artificial Intelligence (AI)
  36. Cannibal Holocaust
  37. X-Men 2
  38. Abakada Ina
  39. Graftbusters
  40. Planet of the Apes
  41. The Patriot
  42. The Passion of the Christ
  43. Asedillo
  44. Red Corner
  45. Anak
  46. Dinasoar
  47. Braveheart
  48. Himala
  49. Amistad
  50. Spartacus

Mataas na Turn-Over Rate among Yuppies

Mataas na Turn-Over Rate sa mga Kabataang Empleyado
ni John N. Ponsaran


“Ano? Iba na naman ang trabaho mo?” Ito ang karaniwang tanong ng pagtataka o pagkabigla ng mga taong nakaalam ng balita.

“Naka-ilang kumpanya ka na ba? Nangungolekta ka yata ng uniporme?" Ito naman ang kasunod na tanong na may kasamang pang-uuyam.

Kung pag-aaralan ang turn-over rate sa hanay ng mga kabataang empleyado, kapansin-pansin ang mataas nitong bahagdan. Pangkaraniwan ng maririnig sa ilang mga young professionals o yuppies ang tila kabi-kabila nilang pagpapalipat-lipat ng kumpanya sa loob ng maikling panahon lamang. Layunin ng artikulong ito ang tukuyin ang ilan sa mga salik (factor) na nagbunsod dito at makapagbigay din ilang kuro-kuro.

Extrinsic reward. Maaaring mababa ang pasuweldo (basic salary) at hindi kaaya-aya ang iba pang pribilehiyo (fringe benefits o perks) ng kumpanya. Higit na malaking usapin ito kung kinakailangan pang bumiyahe ng malayo o mangupahan ang empleyado. Bukod pa rito ang maaaring mataas na cost-of-living sa lugar ng pinagtatrabahuhan. Lumalabas na kung ganito ang sitwasyon ay kaawa-awa talaga ang empleyado. Hirap na sa pagbabadyet at wala pang maaaring asahan na ipon (savings).

Intrinsic reward. Tumutukoy ito sa mga non-tangible elements tulad ng prestihiyo (prestige) na nakakabit sa trabaho. Halimbawa, may mga trabaho na pretihiyoso sa mata ng nakararami at may iba namang linya ng hanapbuhay na ikinahihiya ng ilan. Kung minsan nga ay may kakabit pa na salitang ‘lang’ sa mga ito. Halimbawa, “Taga-timpla lang ng kape ang trabaho ko.”
Kabilang din dito ang inter-personal na relasyon sa loob ng kumpanya. Maaaring ang problema ng empleyado ay sa usapin ng vertical (employer-employee or superordinate-subordinate) o sa aspetong horizontal relation (employee-employee). Samakatuwid, ang paghahanapbuhay ay hindi lamang usaping pang-ekonomiya (extrinsic) sapagkat nakapaloob din dito ang aspeto ng pakikipagkapwa (socialization).

Personalidad, Job Mismatch, Atbp. Malaking salik din ang personalidad ng empleyado. Sinasalamin ng mga preferences ng empleyado sa usapin ng uri ng trabaho at posisyon ang kanilang kabuuang personalidad. Halimbawa, may mga empleyadong likas na free-spirited. Hindi sila komportable sa mga trabahong nakatali lamang sa opisina. Isang isyu din sa workplace ang job mismatch kung saan ang trabahong pinasukan ng empleyado o ang trabahong ibinigay sa kanya ng pamunuan ng kumpanya ay hindi angkop sa kanyang tinapos na kurso at nakaraang pagsasanay. Maaaring bunga rin ito ng kakulangan sa kahandaan sa bahagi ng empleyado at kawalan ng direksyon sa buhay. Hindi maikakaila na may kaugnayan din ang katatagan (stability) ng pamilya, ekonomiya at pamahalaan sa pananatili ng empleyado sa kanyang trabaho. Ang mga ito ay panlabas na hamon na sagka sa pangkalahatang kagalingan (welfare) ng empleyado at maging ng kumpanyang kanyang kinabibilangan.

Sa mga salik na nabanggit din maaaring tukuyin ang posibleng sagot sa suliranin ng mataas na turn-over rate sa hanay ng mga kabataang empleyado.


Quotes on Globalization and World Hunger


On Globalization
by John N. Ponsaran
Globalization has its merits and demerits. But as it is turning out, the latter outweighs the former.

To wit: 3rd World countries as
· repository of excess commodities (surplus goods)
· dumping ground of toxic legacies (take the case of the U.S. military bases in the Philippines)
· supplier of raw materials (in a regime of global trade disparity)
· source of cheap and docile labor force
(not to mention the demise of the indigenous culture)

On World Hunger
"The reality behind world hunger is brought about by both natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) causes. Fortunately, human beings have the propensity to overcome this life-threatening challenge. Regrettably, elitists and some self-serving turbo-capitalist have done nothing to reverse this trend." (JNP)

Some Notes About UP Budget


Some Notes about the Realities of U.P. Budget
by John N. Ponsaran


· Aside from being the premiere academic training center in the field of health sciences, U.P. Manila also has under its aegis the Philippine General Hospital—the Philippines’ biggest government tertiary hospital. True to the spirit of Pahinungod (oblation; self-giving; selflessness), the PGH provides the most comprehensive coverage of medical and health care services mostly to the indigent patients of the country. Between the administrative and academic units and the PGH, the latter correspondingly corners the bigger chunk of the budget allotment for U.P. Manila. Of the Php 1, 572, 359, 000.00 budget for 2002, 77% was allotted to the PGH while the remaining 23% was further divided to the Central Administration and Academic Units.

· U.P.’s place in the plane of higher education is compared to a missionary role (given the reality of scarcity). By and large, U.P dwarfs other colleges and universities in pioneering on innovative and non-conventional course offerings such as Philippine Arts (Manila), Pilipinolohiya (Diliman), Development Studies (Manila), Art Studies (Diliman), Organizational Communication (Manila), Creative Writing (Diliman), Area Studies (Manila) to name a few. To quote Forum (September-October 2003):
“Public universities need and deserve to be subsidized by the national government because, unlike profit-oriented and market-driven schools, they have a missionary role, in terms of providing a college education to our overwhelmingly poor people, and teach little-subscribed courses in the arts and sciences that cost far more than they earn, but which are vital to rounding out our intellectual life and experience.” (Cabangis, 2003:3)

· Its course offering of traditional (generic) and non-traditional programs balances the supply of graduates. This answers the problem of overproduction of graduates in some fields and underproduction in others underscored by Dr. Roland Tolentino of U.P. College of Mass Communication.

· As a state university, U.P. follows the budget cycle. Therefore, it is subject to the nitty-gritty of lobbying and bargaining between U.P. and the Congress and the Department of Budget and Management (DBM).

The illustration below highlights the general process by which U.P. receives its budget.

1. Budget call. DBM calls for budget proposals from the different government departments and agencies (i.e. to include U.P.)
2. Decentralized budget call within U.P. System. U.P. autonomous units submit their respective budget proposal upon the request of Office of the Vice-President for Planning and Finance (OVPPF). The OVPPF relays the parameters set by the DBM.
3. Consolidation. The OVPPF consolidates the budget proposal of the entire U.P. autonomous units which incorporates the total amount of budget request and income.
4. Transmission of the proposed budget to CHED. Commission on Higher Education undertakes the implementation of the mandated decrease in the Maintenance and Other Operating Expenses (MOOE) and the equitable and beneficial allocation of budget among the State Colleges and Universities (SCUs). The decrease in the MOOE allocation is intended to encourage (or force) the government agencies to embark into income-generating projects.
5. Transmission of the proposed budget to DBM. DBM parameters include: government revenue estimates, budgetary priorities within available revenue and borrowing limits, and the cost of approved priorities. It is to be followed by its submission to the Office of the President (OP). Dr. Lawas of the College of Public Health (CPH) points out that a prudent budget planning:
· compares the total budget requirement with the estimated total amount from the different sources of fund
· maintains that the total budget requirement is less than the total estimated available funds.
6. Submission to the Congress of the Philippines. The law prohibits any increase in the budget once it was submitted to the Congress already. This is the stage where lobbying is of paramount importance especially in an arena of competing demands and conflicting interests.
7. Budget hearing in the respective committee of appropriation of the Senate and House of Representative. After which, compromise between the two chambers to settle differences.
8. Signing of the General Appropriations Act.

However, the degree of complexity of the rigorous budget cycle cannot be captured by mere outlines. It is an entire gamut of influence-peddling, dependency, haggling, advocacy, and even grandstanding.

· The 2002 Annual Report of U.P. Manila derives its funds from three sources:
1. General fund (This constitutes the subsidy of the national government as mandated by the General Appropriations Act)
2. Revenue or revolving fund (This comprises the total income of U.P. Manila drawn from the student’s fees and the earnings of the PGH)
3. Trust funds (This comes officially as part of the coffer of U.P. Manila as trustee, agent, administrator, etc. In the case of U.P. Manila, its trust fund is mostly drawn from donations and grants)

· Issues and Problems in the FMS
1. Article 14 Section 5 of the 1987 Philippine Constitution mandates that education should be given the highest priority in the system of budget allocation. To quote:
“The State shall assign the highest budgetary priority to education and ensure that teaching will attract and retain its rightful share of the best available talents through adequate remuneration and other means of job satisfaction and fulfillment.”

However, the quantitative and qualitative impact of such mandate remains to be felt. The skewed budget prioritization of the government gives heavy premium to the servicing of foreign debt and military spending, thereby trading-off social investments such as health and education (which coincidentally the very nature of the social role of U.P. Manila).

The following are key points raised by the FORUM in the article Financing the University by Flor Cabangis dated September-October 20003 which enunciated the realities of the political economy of budgeting.
A. The pursuit of knowledge is one of the life’s noblest missions, but unlike life’s others best things, quality higher education doesn’t come free. In most cases, it doesn’t even come cheap.

B. Harvard (big, rich private American university) and U.P. (financially strapped Philippine public university) both aspire to give their students the best education they can get in their respective countries. And both have succeeded—but in varying degrees, inevitably separated by the enormous differences in their resources and financial capabilities (emphasis mine).

The same article laments about the fact that “Many politician still see investing in education more as a flexible option than an absolute necessity for national growth.” It is short of saying that some of our political leaders have a wrong notion of education as a dispensable commodity. But in an optimistic twist, Francisco Nemenzo underscored that “political leaders who control the budget should realize that being generous to U.P. is good politics.”


2. In a lecture series in honor of U.P. President Jose B. Abueva organized by the University Center of Integrative and Development Studies, Professor Francisco Nemenzo made a revelation which according to him does not merit self-flattery and self-congratulation. To quote:
“…Fooling ourselves that ours is a world-class university, the best in the region, encourages complacency…While the premier universities of Singapore, Thailand and Malaysia surged ahead, the University of the Philippines stagnated. The universities of Indonesia, Brunei and Vietnam may also leave us behind if we allow the current trend to continue. The other governments in the world understood better than ours that no nation can progress while neglecting its scholars.”

3. Of relevance to the theory and practice (praxis) of budgeting is decentralization. This system does not restrict the “purse power” to only a handful of people. On a more controversial note, let me quote a passage from a closing remarks delivered by Vice-Chancellor Roland Simbulan during the Budget Planning Orientation which probably earned the awe and ire of some of participants. Whichever the case may be, his statement is logical and based on valid grounds. To quote:

…The budget is really the articulation in pesos of decisions made by policy-makers and administrators. It should not be the accountant or budget officer who should determine the directions and allocations of our budgets or funds for our programs and activities. It should be the university or the unit administrators, and their decisions are then expressed in money terms by the budget officers, accountants and computer specialist…Budget officers and accountants therefore seem to always have the last say in important decisions, since they have facts to back up their analysis, facts to back up the options they present, and facts and figure to back up their recommendations. Now, we hope that the participants have a basic understanding of the budget process so that we may liberate from the tyranny of our budget officers and accountants in the university.”

Although polemical in manner, the statement is probably intended to call for a more efficient and democratized system of fiscal data banking and to empower the administrators by promoting decentralization.

· UP Manila, the Health Sciences Center, is the country’s center of excellence in health education, training and research. An anemic budget allocation to the University poses a serious threat to its academic freedom as well as to the standard of its instruction, research and extension work.


Budget(ing) is an input, an output and also a process. By and large, it is the financial translation of an agency’s priority agenda. Therefore, budgeting is subjective on the basis of the assumption that “neutrality is a myth”.

The budgeting process of every organization has its own set of commonalities and nuances. It is a battleground of competing demands and conflicting interests.

Manila Collegian quoted former U.P. President Angara that “the University already consumes a lion’s share of the education budget. Other SCUs which receive a smaller budget are complaining because “reklamo ng reklamo ang UP” despite its higher budget. According to the Manila Collegian, Angara even underscored that there are other educational institutions to think about and UP should not have the monopoly for the education budget. I believe that the argument of pitting UP against other SUCs on the issue of appropriating limited budget is myopic, beside the point and totally deceiving. The issue is basically the re-channeling of the budget from debt servicing and heavy military expenditure to the basic social services.

· From the foregoing points, the following recommendations were identified:
1. Institute and strengthen synergy (Sanib-lakas) among various stakeholders in the University to lessen gridlocks which obstruct the smooth sailing of well-meaning and laudable projects.
2. Uphold transparency and accountability in the area of planning, budgeting, spending, accounting and auditing.
3. Institutionalize a failure analysis in the financial management system of the University.
4. Encourage income-generating projects among academic and non-academic units.
5. Standardize the system of data-banking of financial transactions entered into by the University.






List of References:

Books, Annual Reports
Nemenzo, Francisco (2000). U.P. into the 21st Century and Other Essays. U.P. Press: Quezon City.
1987 Philippine Constitution
University of the Philippines, Manila—The Health Sciences Center, Annual Report 2002
Budgeting the U.P. Manila’s Plan, Closing Remarks in the Budget Planning Orientation, January 22, 2004

Internet
Proposed reorganization of U.P. Manila Executive Offices and Administration April 2003 downloaded from
www.upm.edu.ph
The University of the Philippines-Manila Three-Year Plan downloaded from www.upm.edu.ph

Interview
Professor Roland G. Simbulan, MPA
Vice-Chancellor for Planning and Development
Professor, Development Studies and Graduate Studies Program
January 22, 2004

Health and (Mal)Development

Health and (Mal)development
by John N. Ponsaran


Consider the following points:

· A sickly population is counter-productive. Not only does it forego the chance of maximizing the potential of the population as a productive force, it also adds to the financial burden of the government.

· With the contemporary exodus of the health practitioners out of the Philippines, the country’s health is at risk. In most hospitals, a significant percentage of separation from the work was by way of resignation (less cases of separation by way of retirement and termination of contract). Majority of them complain about their over-worked, under-paid condition.

· The prohibitive cost of medicine in most developing countries has left the indigent population in the verge of death. As a consequence, health turns out to be a monopoly of the local elites.

· Bigger premium of the national budget is allocated to debt servicing and defense than health care—a paralyzing concoction. Budget cut on the health sector compounded by the high cost of private hospitalization has left the poor Filipinos in limbo.

· A healthy population is a sound socio-economic investment. A strong citizenry translates to a stable economic foundation. A viable economy results to a healthy population.

· The babaylans were the traditional healers during the Pre-historic period. In the name of expansionism, they were purged and labeled as the “disciples of evil” by the Christian missionaries.

· To a certain extent, Patch Adams is right. The field of medicine should have a humanistic face. It should be beyond biological healing.

· Wu wei (principle of non-action) is a sound guiding principle of Taoism in their day-to-day living. It sees everything as part of the interconnected whole. It defies artificiality, violence and friction. It promotes solidarity, naturalness, moderation, health and peaceful co-existence with the environment. The way of life of humans seems to be an outright violation of wu-wei—alcoholism, drug abuse, cloning, artificial additives, synthetic food, cyanide fishing, “Mcdonaldized” items, gluttony, inorganic fertilizers and pesticides.

· The rapid urbanization compounded by the poor administration in Metropolitan Manila lead to over-congestion, severe pollution and resource depletion which brought the population more vulnerable to accidents and diseases (e.g. respiratory problems, cardio-vascular diseases, etc.). Rural folks, on the other hand, suffer from the inaccessibility of health facilities, poor health education, intoxication from mine tailings, malnutrition brought by landlessness and low budget allocation for health care.

· Some people question the ethical and moral justification of the traditional practices such as the female genital mutilation in Africa, neck ring in Myanmar and foot binding in China. They argue that such cultural practices have serious health repercussion. How about food and medicine blockade? biological warfare? genetically modified food?

· The collusion between the drug companies and the doctor has resulted to the increasing cost of medicine. Quoted from a source, a drug company’s worst nightmare would be an epidemic of good health.


(This output is an outline of a reaction delivered in a Lambat-Liwanag Conference
on Holistic Health held in UP Manila)

Diyos

Diyos
ni John N. Ponsaran


Diyos ng sansinukob
Diyos ng kasaysayan
Diyos ng katwiran
At lunduyan ng katarungan.


Diyos ng pag-ibig
Bathala ng buhay
Apo Namallari ng kapayapaan
At Panginoon ng kaliwanagan.


Kapanalig at kasama
Kabalikat at kasangga


Ikaw ang Diyos ng aming
pananampalataya
at pakikibaka.

Lalawigan by Gary Granada

Lalawigan
by Gary Granada
Verse 1
Narito sa lalawigan ang una mong pag-ibig
Ang iyong mga kaibigan, ang iyong mga kapatid
Si Juan minsa'y nangarap, at kung saan saan pa nagpunta
Ang asensong hinahanap, sa lalawigan lang pala.
Chorus 1
Dito lang matutupad ang hinahangad
Dito lamang uunlad at lalawig ang bukas
Dito lang nagmumula ang yaman ng ating bansa
Dito tayo gagawa, sa kinagisnang lalawigan
Verse2
Ang damdaming makatao dito din natutunan
Mga ugaling Pilipino, gaya ng pagdadamayan
Sa siyudad ibang sistema, sa sobrang kasikipian
Pati na sa iyong problem, halos walang mahingahan
Chorus 2
Dito mo ako mahalin, dito natin didiligin
Palagihi't palaguin ang ating sumpaan
Dito tayo mamumunga, gigiik at giginhawa
Sasaya at sasagana sa kinagisnang lalawigan
Dito tayo titira, sisikhay at sisigla
Tatagal at tatanda sa kinagisnanag lalawigan.

Philippine Sitcoms

Common Features of Philippine Sitcoms

Resort to impersonation of famous (and infamous) political and showbiz personalities (i.e., Ate Glo, Sherap Estrada, El General Tabako, Ate Guy, etc.)

Resort to exaggeration (physical attributes, mannerisms, accessories, accent, preoccupations, etc.)

Lack originality (“bastardized” version of Western sitcoms or a copy-cat of local materials)

Characterized by discrimination on the basis of physical trait, gender, ethnicity, intelligence, creed, age and socio-economic status

Inject green jokes and toilet humors

Characterized by substandard plot and light themes

Promote escapism (Cinderella stories, rags-to-riches plots, etc.)

Drawn mainly from the day-to-day living of the lower- and middle-class

Tendency to make fun of the misfortune/miseries of others

3Ds (demoralizing, demeaning and discriminatory)

Inject dialogues with double/subliminal meanings (i.e. sisid, araro, gubat, etc.)

Spoof of popular commercial advertisements and current events (SARS scare, traffic jams, back-to-school scenario, election fever, etc.)

Inject adlibs (characterized by spontaneity)

Make use of parody/satire (i.e., Abangan ang Susunod na Kabanata)

Appeal to the ranks of the masses

Delve into the personal lives of the artists

Deliver vulgar and profane lines

Reflect the idiosyncrasies of the Filipinos (i.e., fatalism, clannishness, culture of poverty, colonial mindedness, etc.)

Demean the underdog (slapstick comedy)

(This outline is a consolidated output of my INSOCIO students A.Y. 1st term, 2003-2004)

Talapapagan

Pag-isipan…

· Makatwiran ba ang mga rallies o street demonstrations?

· Ano ang totoo? Human as creators of the society or Humans as products of the society?

· Sumasang-ayon ka ba na ang memorization ang lowest form of learning?

· Ipaliwanag kung bakit tinaguriang microcosm of the Philippine society ang jeepney.

· Kung gagawa ng balance sheet hinggil sa epekto ng globalization, nakinabang ba dito o hindi ang Pilipinas?

· Anong masasabi mo tungkol sa lumalaganap na “yellow journalism” sa bansa?

· Paano ginamit/ginagamit ng mga naghaharing uri (elite) ang relihiyon upang panatilihin ang kanilang sarili sa kapangyarihan (self-perpetuation to maintain hegemony)?

· Ano ang hangganan ng sensura (censorship) upang kontrolin ang larangan ng sining?

· Saan mo i-uugat ang malawakang kahirapan sa hanay ng mga magsasaka at mangingisda sa kanayunan?

· Ano ang pagkakahalintulad at pagkakaiba ng Filipino at Western superheroes?

· Ano ang katangian ng isang ideyal na pamilya?







Pinoy eh!

Random Thoughts on A-Z of Philippine Society and Culture (Part 1)
by John N. Ponsaran
A-Andok's; ABNKKBSNplaako, Adobo
B-Bagoong Balayan; Balot; Bini V. Rocha
C-Chicarong Bulaklak, Chopsuey; Chiquito
D-Diningding; Darna; Dampa ( in P'que)
E-Empanada; Engkanto; Eat Bulaga
F-FilAms; F. Sionil Jose; FPJ
G-Galunggong; Gerry's
H-Halu-halo; Hariraya Poasa
I-Ivatan; Isaw
J-Jologs; Jeepney
K-Kikay; Kilawin
L-Lechon Festival; Lakay
M-Manananggal; Manunggul Jar, Marina
N-Network War; Noranian
O-Oblation; Oro Plata Mata; Otap
P-Panday; Pedro Penduko; Penoy
Q-Quaipo Church; Quezon
R-Rally; Rizalista
S-SONA; San Mig
T-Tukneneng; Tumbang-Preso; Tsinoy
U-Uyayi; Undin
V-Voltes V; Vilmanians
W-Wayway
X-Xerex; Xerox
Y-Yano; Yakan
Z-Zuma; Zsa Zsa Zaturna

Trivia Questions no. 1

TRIVIA

  1. What is the real name of Nora Aunor?
  2. What does PedXing stand for?
  3. What was the original color of tweety bird before it was changed to yellow?
  4. Is the person inside the marcot costume smiling or not during photo ops?
  5. What is the English translation of banyuhay?
  6. Make sense out of this seemingly unintelligible entry: is is is is is is is is is is
  7. Make sense out of this seemingly unintelligible entry: breth
  8. Make sense out of this seemingly unintelligible entry: abcdefghijkmnopqrstuvwxyz
  9. What is an ampersand?
  10. What is the English translation of dagitab?

Wednesday, December 08, 2004

'tol,jologs...

‘Tol, Jologs, Itlog, Atpb.
ni John N. Ponsaran

Ang wika ay isang agham at sining ng pagkokonteksto. Sinasalamin nito ang maraming bagay tulad ng kultura, kapaligiran, ideolohiya at maging ang usapin ng kapangyarihan (power relations). Ang mga sumusunod ay ilan sa mga sangkutsadong punto ukol sa lalim at diwa nito.

Araro, kiskis, at bayo. Ang mga ito ay katagang may kinalaman sa pagsasaka. Subalit sa piguratibong pagpapakahulugan, ito ay maiuugnay sa mga sensitibong usapin tulad malisya o kabastusan. Ganoon din naman kung ang salitang sisid ang tutukuyin na nagtataglay din ng double meaning. Kapansin-pansin na ang denotative at connotative definitions ay may kaugnayan sa heograpiya at sa reyalidad ng productive (economic) at reproductive (biological) configuration.

‘Tol na mula sa salitang utol na pinaikling kaputol. Nangangahulugan ito ng matibay na pagkakabuklod sa pagitan ng dalawa o higit pang magkapanalig. Ito ay napaka-kaswal na point of engagement subalit may malalim pala itong pinag-ugatan.

Tanong: Bababa ba? Sagot: Bababa. Ang mga Pinoy ay nagkakaintindihan gamit lamang ang pagpapa-ulit-ulit ng iisang pantig (syllable).

Tao. Sinasalamin ng wika ang katangian ng tao gamit mismo ang katagang tao at mga derivatives nito. Halimbawa: makatao (at di-makatao), tau-tauhan, pakitang-tao, tauhan, atbp.

Pulitika at Kapangyarihan. Kapansin-pansin ang pagkakahalintulad (analogy) ng biyolohika na istruktura ng organismo at ng pampulitikang institusyon kung saan may ulo (pangulo), kamay (kanang kamay o vice regent) at galamay (alipores o ang mga taga-suporta). Ganitong-ganito ang kalikasan ng patronage politics sa Pilipinas.

Dualismo. Positibong ang mga katangiang iniuugay sa salitang itlog. Halimbawa: punlay, fertility, kasaganahan, atbp. Subalit kalunos-lunos na zero o bagsak naman ang ibig sabihin nito kung sa konteksto ng akademya ito gagamitin. Halimbawa: “Itlog” ang grado mo sa Algebra! Ganoon din naman sa kaso ng salitang kalabasa (nutritional value; pampalinaw ng mata vs. bagsak sa eksaminayon) at bilang 7 (mapalad na bilang vs. palakol o line of 7 sa report card)

Ebolusyon. Sa paglipas ng panahon, may iba’t-iba na tayong pagpapakahulugan sa salitang pare.
1. Pare (pinaikling kumpadre) o pagiging magkatuwang sa kasal, binyag, atbp.
2. Pare na isang term of impersonal engagement. Halimbawa: Pare, anong oras na?
3. Pare na isang term of endearment. Halimbawa: Salamat sa pakikiramay, pare.
4. Pare o P’re na pinasikat ni Roderick Paulate. Halimbawa: P’re, pa kiss naman d’yan!
5. Pare na tampok at naging popular bunga ng commercial advertisement ng isang shampoo na ang ibig sabihin ay gf.

Jologs (o baduy, masa, atbp.). May iba’t-iba itong bersyon ng pinaghalawan. Una, mula sa salitang Jolina’s Organization (o kabaduyan). Ikawala, mula sa salitang geologist sapagkat hindi na daw diumano alintana ng mga taong nasa ganitong linya ang maging balidoso o maselan. Mga cowboys, wika nga. Pangatlo, pinaikling dilis, tuyo at itlog (di-yo-log) na karaniwang pagkain ng masa (hoi polloi).

Samakatuwid, ang wika ay higit sa pagiging payak at maaari itong unawain sa iba’t-ibang pananaw—tradisyunal man, progresibo o post-modern. Replekyon ito ng kalinangan at kolektibong kamulatan (collective consciousness) ng isang pamayanan o subculture.
(Ang artikulong ito ay unang nailathala sa Libre-PDI)

Kamalayang Malakolonyal

Kamalayang Mala-kolonyal
ni John N. Ponsaran

Sadya nga talagang malalim ang pagkakatanim ng kaisipang Kanluranin sa mga Pinoy. Kapansin-pansin ito sa iba’t-ibang larangan ng ating pagkatao sa maykro o makrong antas. Ilan lamang ang mga sumusunod sa napakarami pang mga kapuna-puna sa ating mga Pilipino.

· Tila ipinagmamalaki pa ng ibang Pinoy na sila diumano ay hindi lubos na nakakaunawa at nakakapagsalita ng wikang Tagalog o Filipino gayong baluktot din naman ang pagsasalita (o maging ang pagsusulat) sa wikang banyaga (English carabao din naman kumbaga). Lumalabas na status symbol pa ang pagiging hindi maalam at matatas sa wikang pambansa. Kaiba ito sa mga bansang may malalim na pagpapahalaga sa nasyunalismo. Kahihiyan (social disgrace) sa kanila kung “malasado” o “hilaw” ang damdaming makabayan.


· Kapansin-pansin din ang bahid ng white supremacy sa ating kultura. Kataka-taka ito para sa isang bansang kayumanggi. Sa Pilipinas, may isang local sitcom kung saan ang isang katutubong Aeta ay ipinapakete bilang tampulan ng tukso at pang-uuyam (object of ridicule). Kung iisipin ay hindi lamang naman siya bilang siya ang nabibiktima kundi maging ang kolektibong hanay ng mga Aeta sa kabuuan. Sinasalamin lamang ng ganitong tema/iskema ang katotohanan na ang mga katutubo ay mga second-class citizens lamang sa isang lipunan mala-kolonyal, elitista at nakakahon ang pag-iisip.

· Tinagurian ang mga Pinoy na little brown Americans. Hindi ito maitatanggi. Nagdudumilat ang katotohanan. Wika nga, “We think, behave, speak and dress like the Americans.” Bunga ito ng matagumpay na kolonisayon at neo-kolonisasyon ng Estados Unidos sa mga Pinoy. Sa pananalita ni Prop. George Ritzer, ito ang penomenong “Mcdonaldization of the society” o ang paglalapat ng Kanluraning moda sa pandaigdigang antas (hegemony). Ang MTV at Hollywood invasion ay mga manipestasyon din ng Mcdonaldized na lipunan.

· Sa isang mala-kolonyal na kaayusan, walang ganansiya ang maaaring asahan ng mga bansang tulad ng Pilipinas mula sa mga MDCs (more developed countries). Sa kasaysayan (at maging sa kasalukuyan), tatlo ang naging mahalagang papel ng bansa (at maging ng iba pang nasa hanay ng Third World) sa pandaigdigang ekonomiya ayon sa kumpas ng U.S.. Una, ang maging suplayer ng hilaw na produkto (source of raw materials). Ikalawa, ang maging suplayer ng murang lakas paggawa (supplier of labor force). Pangatlo, ang maging tambakan ng mga sobrang produkto (dumping ground of excess commodities). Nakapanlulumo!

· Upang mas mapalaganap ang kaisipang Kanluranin ay tuwirang pinawi ng mga conquistador ang diwa ng ating pagka-Asyano. Ang tuluyang pagka-alienate natin mula sa ating lipi at kalinangang pinag-ugatan ang dahilan kung bakit tayo ay “lutang” (in limbo) bilang mga Pilipino. Mas naka-ugat ( o identified) tayo sa piyesta (bilang manipestasyon ng faith-fate), sa jeepney (isang scrap war vehicle ng mga Kano na naiwan at itinambak sa bansa natin) at sa mga telenovelas (nanguguna sa pagpapalaganap ng escapism).



Sa kabila ng lahat ng ito ay mayroon pa rin namang inaasahang pagkamulat (o pagka-untog). Subalit ito ay isang mahabang proseso. At nagsisimula ito sa pagpuna sa sarili at sa mga gawing mala-kolonyal. Ang pagbabago ay dapat mangyari ng sabay mula sa itaas at ibaba. Hindi masama ang exposure sa mga kaisipang Kanluranin kung ito ay mapanghahawakan ng mahusay at hindi sapilitang ilalapat sa hindi angkop na konteksto.



Euphemism

Euphemisms

worst- least best
lazy- motivationally deficient
pregnant- infanticipating
absurd- amusing, unique, unconventional
old- chronologically gifted, senior citizen
drug addict- pharmacologically dependent
prisoner- clientele of the penal system, state subsidized
disabled, paralyzed- differently-abled
failure- suboptimal, incomplete success
old- gerontologically advanced
spit- expectorate
riot- civil disturbance
skinny- fashionably thin
weird- unique, unconventional
pro-abortion- pro-choice
galis - allergy
stupid- cerebrally challenged
medical malpractice- therapeutic misadventure
cheater- academically dishonest person, data duplicator
earthquake- geological correction
die- to be with his/her Creator
disgraciada- single parent, independent woman
crazy- mental explorers
vomit- to lose one's lunch
bald- comb-free

(compiled by John N. Ponsaran)

College 101: Survival Tips

College 101: Basic Survival Tipsby John N. Ponsaran

-Practice the art and science of cooperative learning. (Nasa pagkakaisa ang lakas!)

-Do more than what is expected of you. (But not to the point of grandstanding!)

-Systematize data banking by maintaining a file organizer, back-up electronic copies, etc.
(ala 5S of Japan!)

-Avoid the unnecessary wastage of resources
(i.e., time, effort, energy, money, supplies, brain cells, etc.)

-Avoid being a free-rider (parasite) especially during group outputs.
(Otherwise, you’ll end up as an outcast during group activities!)

-Join well-meaning and productive in- and out-campus organizations.

-Do not restrict yourself to a limited set of references. (Imbibe the culture of research!)

-Optimize the resources and services offered by the college.
(i.e., library, multi-media, counseling, tutorial services, etc.)

-Liberate yourself from your sheltered existence. (Observe, explore and learn!)

-Take time to process information.
(Education is more than just chunks of raw data unrelated to each other!)

-Bear in mind that memorization is the lowest form of learning.


-Reward yourself once in a while. 

-Maintain an open line of communication with the significant others around you.
(Most hassles arise from misunderstanding!)

-Recognize the individuality of every person.

-Refrain from any form of cheating, i.e., plagiarism, copying during exams, etc. (Cheating is basically a question of prudence and self-respect!)

-Expose yourself to a variety of literature, i.e. from metaphysics to ideologies, from world religion to Pugad Baboy. (Feed your mind!)

-Practice the art and science of negotiation.
(As the cliché goes, “Anger is just a letter away from Danger!”)

-Remember that intelligence does not always have to be cerebral.
(Take note of multiple-intelligences!)

-Contribute to the exchange of ideas by participating actively during classroom discussion.
(at least to make your presence felt!)

-Experiment and try to discover new things. (Don’t just parrot what’s in the textbook!)

-Keep in mind that college education won’t cover everything there is to learn. (It’s just a phase in the entire learning process!)

-Remember that there are no boring subjects, only boring teachers!
(At least, they serve a purpose, i.e., as bad examples)

Usaping Pangkalusugan

KALUSUGAN, EKONOMIYA AT PULITIKA
ni John N. Ponsaran
University of the Philippines
jnponsaran@yahoo.com

Mariing tinututulan ng hanay ng mga progresibo at maka-kaliwang grupo ang patakaran ng pamahalaan sa pagbabadyet. Partikular dito ang patuloy na pagliit ng nakalaang salapi para sa batayang serbisyong pangkalusugan ng mamamayang Pilipino upang higit na mapagtuunan ng pansin ang dayuhang pagkakautang (foreign debt) at ang pagpapaunlad ng Sandatahang Panlakas ng Pilipinas o AFP. Sa kabuuan, hindi lamang ito payak na usapin ukol sa pananalapi kundi isang malalim na usapin na naka-ugat sa kolonyal na kasaysayan ng Pilipinas. Kumbaga, ang Pilipinas ay isang “republikang papet” ng International Monetary Fund-World Bank, korporasyong transnasyunal at Estados Unidos. Nakapanlulumo subalit ito ang mapait na katotohanan.

* * *
Ayon kay dating-WHO Director General Hiroshi Nakajima, M.D., “Increased longevity without quality of life is an empty prize. Health expectancy is more important than life expectancy.” Karaniwang iniuugnay ang kalusugan sa mas mahabang buhay. Subalit ano nga ba ang halaga ng mas mahabang buhay sa gitna ng kagipitan, pagkakasakit, sakuna bunga ng kapabayaan ng tao, malawakang taggutom, at kawalan ng katarungang panlipunan (social justice), at iba pa? Bunga ng modernong paraan ng panggagamot, mas humaba ang buhay ng tao. Subalit, kaugnay ng unang katanungan, mayroon ba itong mataas na kalidad (quality of life)?

* * *
Sa isang artikulo na aking naisulat ukol sa Filipino Indigenous Healing Tradition bilang bahagi ng aking pananaliksik sa Unibersidad ng Pilipinas (UP), aking binigyang diin na ang paglaganap ng katutubong paraan ng panggagamot ay reaksyon sa mataas na halaga ng gamot at hospitalisasyon, kakulangan ng batayang serbisyong pangkalusugan at maka-Kanluraning oryentasyon ng medisina sa bansa. Ayon sa artikulo, “…the twin evils of corporate greed (which lead to the skyrocketing prices of commercial medicine) and government neglect (which relegated public health at the backburner) have lead to the popularization and proliferation of the folk healing tradition like hilot, tawas, and faith healing in the Philippines. It is also a form of defiance to the elitist, exclusive, and materialistic brand of Western medicine.”
(Ang artikulong ito ay naunang nailathala sa KATAPAT)

National Minorities


Notes on the National Minorities in the Philippines
by John N. Ponsaran

· What makes the national minorities (katutubo) distinct from the mainstream population?
-Strongly identified with their ancestral land (lupang ninuno)
-Demographically fewer
-Strong group solidarity
-Preserved cultural identity
-Mostly geographically isolated
-Traditional mode of production
-Distinct language
-Socially minoritized

· They are the marginalized of all the marginalized. They are politically underrepresented, economically disenfranchised and culturally discriminated.

· The colonial and neocolonial consciousness propagated by the imperialist west rendered our understanding of the national minorities in the Philippines ethnocentric, uncritical and erroneous. This is a classic case of miseducation as underscored by the nationalist historian Renato Constantino. This, in effect, alienated us from our cultural heritage.

· By and large, the katutubo are given nominal credit, if not none at all, in the writing of Philippine history. Philippine historiography, as argued by most nationalist scholars, is colonial, elitist, exclusive, patriarchal and Luzon-centric.

· The ranks of the national minorities are rendered vulnerable to the inroads of unregulated globalization (liberalization, privatization, and deregulation a.k.a. as lapida).

· With the war of aggression (total war policy) waged by the Philippine government against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG), scores of civilian Muslims (mostly women and children) were dislocated from their ancestral land.

· The rural-push and urban-pull phenomenon which drives the katutubo from their native land to the nerve center of the National Capital Region (NCR) is not an effect of chance. It is an out-growth of economic dislocation brought about by development aggression and state terrorism (militarization) in the countryside.

· Some lowland Christian population persecutes them by labelling them with appellations such as taong bundok, barbarians, non-Christian, kulot, among others.

· Some media outfits and government-sponsored programs depict the katutubo as objects of ridicule or “rare artifacts” of some sort.

· The highly centralized political structure in the Philippines adopted by the government from the previous colonial regime has undermined the autonomy and the right to self-determination (karapatan sa sariling pagpapasya) of the national minorities.

· Displacing the ranks of the katutubo from their ancestral domain is tantamount to ethnocide. To dispossess them of their land is to deprive them of their culture (katutubong kalinangan).

· Due to their geographical isolation and the lowland bias of the Philippine government, the katutubo suffer from deprivation (i.e., health, education and social welfare).

· Some katutubo end up compromising their cultural heritage by commodifying their artifacts (through barter or mass-production) due to poverty.

· The lack of formal schooling and the disempowering state legislations render the katutubo vulnerable to landgrabbing and unjust lease agreements.

· The recruitment of CAFGUs among the ranks of the katutubo is a modern form of divide and rule tactics of the Spanish colonial regime. It is a mechanism of pitting a group of freedom-fighting katutubo (supporters of the social activists) against coopted katutubo (CAFGU recruits).

This is an outline of a lecture delivered at the College of Science, University of Santo Tomas, 11 February 2004.