Sunday, June 26, 2005


1. in terms of academic excellence (U.P. or Ateneo?)
2. in terms of prestige (lawyer or doctor?)
3. in terms of credibility (ABS CBN or GMA news and public affairs?)
4. in terms of consistency (Panfilo Lacson or Bayani Fernando?)
5. in terms of power (Executive or Legislative department?)
6. in terms of credibility (Senate or House of Representatives?)
7. in terms of notoriety (ERAP or First Gentleman Arroyo?)
8. in terms of vanity (Evita Peron or Imelda Marcos?)
9. in terms of charisma (ERAP or FPJ?) terms of visibility (PNP or MMDA?)

Power, Culture and Society (quiz)

Directions: Choose the best answer from the given set of choices.

1. The following are cases of development aggression except:
a. dislocation of the Mangyans brought about by the eco-tourism project of the Philippine government
b. displacement of the Ifugaos brought about by the massive extractive operations of the foreign mining corporations
c. recognition of the legitimate rights of the national minorities (indigenous people) to their ancestral land
d. construction of a golf course at the expense of the Aetas

2. The following are manifestations of prejudice except:
a. ageism
b. ethnic cleansing
c. cultural pluralism
d. racism

3. Which of the following is not a function of religion?
a. acts as social control
b. serves as a standard of morality
c. promotes social cohesion
d. results to religious conflict

4. Which of the following is not mechanism to control crime?
a. prevention
b rehabilitation
c. retribution
d. delusion

5. Estafa, tax fraud and plunder are examples of this kind of crime.
a. white-collar crimes
b. blue-collar crimes
c. pink-collar crimes
d. black-collar crimes

6. It refers to the biological or anatomical distinction between men and women.
a. sex
b. gender
c. sexuality
d. eco-feminism

7. Which of the following does not exhibit structured inequality?
a. patriarchy
b. slavery
c. ageism
d. cultural tolerance

8. Which of the following does not characterize a minority group?
a. economically marginalized
b. possesses strong group solidarity
c. subject to discrimination
d. well-represented in the political arena

9. Which of the following attitude is not ethnocentric?
a. colonial mentality
b. attitude of exclusivity
c. racial supremacy of Adolf Hitler
d. Manila-centric development

10. Which of the following is not a dysfunction of religion
a. religious conflict
b. fanaticism and blind faith
c. prejudice and persecution
d. social control

11. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a revolution.
a. leads to major structural change
b. involves threat or use of force
c. results to casualties and fatalities
d. passive means of promoting change

12. Which of the following does not exemplify discrimination?

a. Double standard
b. Apartheid
c. Slavery
d. Ecumenism

13. It refers to the peaceful coexistence of multiple subcultures within a given society.
a. cultural pluralism
b. cultural universal
c. cultural ecology
d. cultural lag

14. The phenomenal rise of Nora Aunor to stardom during the 70s and 80s could be explained by the__________.
a. rags-to-riches plots enjoyed by the viewing public (Cinderella-type stories)
b. escapism which temporarily relieves and insulates the viewers from the harsh realities of life
c. radical shift from the usual mestiza leading ladies dominating the film industry
d. all of the above

15. Which of the following does not usually characterize a superhero as depicted in the Filipino movies?
a. The superhero has physical weakness in his/her mortal form.
b. The power is drawn from nature or given by a hermit/mystic.
c. The superhero obtained his/her power and ability from a radioactive explosion or an irradiated spider
d. The motivation of the hero is usually to help the powerless, not anchored on plain vengeance alone.

16. Which of the following are manifestations of unregulated globalization?
a. Mcdonaldization of the society
b. Hollywood invasion of the Third World culture
c. Eurocentric mentality and consumerism in Asia
d. All of the above

17. Which of the following is not a violation of wu-wei (Taoist principle of non-action)
a. Deforestation, massive quarrying, muro-ami
b. inter-relatedness of all creatures
c. commercialization of endangered animals
d. cloning, genetically modified organism (GMO), test-tube babies

18. Which of the following is not an illustration of structural violence?
a. Food blockade
b. Ethnocide
c. Advocacy towards women empowerment and gender equality
d. Development aggression

19. This perspective presupposes that women and ecology are hapless victims of the male-dominated society (patriarchy).
a. Eco-sexism
b. Eco-feminism
c. Eco-protectionism
d. Ecumenism

20. Commodification of women is an illustration of _____.
a. commercialism
b. gender bias
c. structural violence
d. all of the above

Tuesday, June 21, 2005

Ang Pulitika ng X

Talaan ng posibleng paksa para sa papel:
Ang Pulitika ng Street names
Ang Pulitika ng Pre-paid card
Ang Pulitika ng Condom
Ang Pulitika ng HIV-AIDS
Ang Pulitika ng Basura
Ang Pulitika ng Mini-skirt
Ang Pulitika ng Resibo
Ang Pulitika ng I.D.
Ang Pulitika ng Coca-cola
Ang Pulitika ng Espasyo
Ang Pulitika ng Texting
Ang Pulitika ng Pagkain
Ang Pulitika ng Pagkababae
Ang Pulitika ng Pagkalalaki
Ang Pulitika ng Komiks
Ang Pulitika ng Lenggwahe
Ang Pulitika ng Relihiyon
Ang Pulitika ng Pasko
Ang Pulitika ng Pakikipagtalik
Ang Pulitika ng Kamatayan
Ang Pulitika ng Pananamit
Ang Pulitika ng Oras

Sunday, June 19, 2005

Kung Tuyo Na Ang Luha Mo, Aking Bayan

Kung Tuyo Na Ang Luha Mo, Aking Bayan
ni Amado V. Hernandez

Lumuha ka , Aking Bayan; buong lungkot mong iluha
ang kawawan kapalaran ng lupain mong kawawa;
ang bandilang sagisag mo’y lukob ng dayong bandila,
pati wikang minana mo’y busabos ng ibang wika;
ganito ring araw noon nang agawan ka ng laya,
labintatlo ng Agosto nang saklutin ang Maynila.

Lumuha ka, habang sila ay palalong nagdiriwang,
sa libingan ng maliit, ang malaki’y may libangan;
katulad mo ay si Huli, naaliping bayad –utang,
katulad mo ay si Sisa, binaliw ng kahirapan;
walang lakas na magtanggol, walang tapang na lumaban,
tumataghoy, kung paslangin; tumatangis, kung nakawan!

Iluha mo ang sambuntong kasawiang nagtalakop
na sa iyo’y pampahirap , sa banyaga’y pampalusog:
ang lahat mong kayamana’y kamal-kamal na naubos,
ang lahat mong kalayaa’y sabay-sabay na natapos;
masdan mo ang iyong lupa, dayong hukbo’y nakatanod,
masdan mo ang iyong dagat, dayong bapor, nasa laot!

Lumuha ka kung sa puso ay nagmaliw na ang layon,
kung araw sa langit mo ay lagi nang dapithapon,
kung ang alon sa dagat mo ay ayaw nang magdaluyong,
kung and bulakn sa dibdibmo ay hindi man umuungol,
kung wala nang maglalamay sa gabi ng pagbabangon,
lumuha ka nang lumuha’t ang laya mo’y nakaburol.

May araw ding and luha mo’y masasaid, matutuyo,
may araw ding di na luha sa mata mong namumugto
ang dadaloy, kundi apoy, at apoy na kulay dugo,
samantalang ang dugo mo ay aserong kumukulo;
sisigaw kang buong giting sa liyab ng libong sulo
at ang lumang tanikala’y lalagutin mo ng punglo!

Sunday, June 05, 2005

Problems and Issues in the Philippine Educational System

Notes About the Problems and Issues in the
Philippine Educational System: A Critical Discourse
by Prof. John N. Ponsaran

Colonial historiography. Many teachers, book authors, and Social Studies consultants give heavier premium to the history of the colonizers in the Philippines than the history of Filipino people. Mostly, this has been the case in the teaching of History subjects from the elementary to tertiary levels. The history of the Filipino people and the colonial history of the Philippines are two very different topics.

Internationalization of the division of labor. The Philippine educational system conditions its students to be skillful in arithmetic and computer literacy, fluent in foreign languages (specifically English and Nihonggo), and docile in order to serve as workers of the transnational businesses of the advanced, capitalist countries. Take the case of the call center phenomenon in the Philippines, India and other developing states. 

Emasculation and demoralization of teachers. Teachers, more often than not, are victimized by the over-worked and under-paid policy of the system of the past and present dispensations. This leads to the emasculation and demoralization of their ranks. This probably explains why the teaching profession is not attracting the best and the brightest from the crop of students. Expectedly, this will result in the vicious cycle of mediocrity in education.

Fly-by-night educational institutions. The proliferation of fly-by-night educational institutions is counter-productive and anti-development. In the long run, it produces a pool of half-baked, unprepared, and incompetent graduates. Alarmingly, the country is having an over-supply already. This case is true for both undergraduate and graduate studies. 

Culturally and gender insensitive educational system. The women sector, the masses and the indigenous people are historically excluded from the Philippine historiography in favor of the men, heroes from Luzon and the power elite. Women are marginalized and trivialized even in the language of education. 

State abandonment of education. In the name of imperialist globalization, the state is abandoning its role to subsidize public education particularly in the tertiary level. This comes in the form of matriculation, laboratory and miscellaneous fee increases in order to force state colleges and universities (SCUs) to generate their own sources of fund. Ironically, the bulk of the budget (in fact, more than one-third in the case of 2005 National Budget) goes to debt servicing, which is an unproductive enterprise.

Sub-standard textbooks. Some textbooks which are already circulation are both poorly written and edited. Take the case of the Asya: Noon at Ngayon with an identified total number of more than 400 historical errors.  Unfortunately, it is just one of the many other similar atrociously written textbooks which are yet to be identified and exposed. This is a classic case of profit-centeredness without regard to social accountability.

Widespread contractualization. In the name of profit, owners and administrators of several private schools commonly practice contractualization among their faculty members. Contractual employees unlike their regular/tenured counterparts are not entitled to fringe benefits in the bid of capitalist-educators to reduce the over-all cost of their business operation. Job insecurity demeans the ranks of the faculty members.

Copy-pasting culture. Over-dependence to the cyberspace has dramatically reduced the capability of students (even teachers) to undertake serious research. ‘Copy-pasting’ has even turned into a norm among some students.

Mcdonaldized education. The system, methodology, and content of education in the Philippines is Eurocentric, culturally insensitive, and non-reflective of the local milieu. This is based on the xenocentric (foreign-centered) premise that other culture or system is more superior than one’s own.

Poor regard for liberal art/education. Liberal education is intended to form a holistic individual equipped with communication, critical thinking, mathematical, creative, inter-personal and intra-personal skills. This explains why we also have Philosophy, Languages, Humanities, Natural Science, Social Science, and Physical Education in our college curriculum, and not only our major subjects. The curriculum is specifically designed to produce a total person, and not only a technical specialist. Unfortunately, the desired objective is not being met since liberal education is regarded only as a set of minor subjects. With the way these subjects are being handled (taking into account both content and methodology), students view the entire exercise as an unnecessary duplication of what they have already covered in high school. Equally alarming is the lack of enthusiasm and motivation exhibited by some professors to handle the subject especially if they believe that it has nothing to do with the course or area of specialization of their students (say, Art Appreciation for Accounting majors or Algebra for Creative Writing majors). 

Further marginalization of the undersubscribed courses. In the name of profit and as a response to the dictates of the market forces, colleges and universities prefer to offer more courses in line with the health sciences like medical transcription, and care-giving. This is done at the expense of the already undersubscribed yet relevant courses like Area Studies, Pilipinolohiya (Philippine Studies), Development Studies, Philippine Arts, Art Studies, Community Development, Social Work, Islamic Studies, Clothing Technology, and Ceramics Engineering.

Prof. John N. Ponsaran is currently the co-chair of the Development Studies Program in the University of the Philippines Manila where he handles development studies and management courses in the graduate and undergraduate levels.  He both earned his BA in Development Studies and Master in Public Management in UP.  He has co-authored 5 textbooks in Social Studies and authored various articles about sustainable development, medical tourism and globalization.    

Thursday, June 02, 2005